Friday, January 28, 2011

A Brief And Concise History Of Rome

Capitolium.Org is the publisher of the following article and I give them full credit. I find the article to be an excellent quick reference source. God Bless.. Jerry..

Rome and its numerous centuries of history officially began in 753 B.C. on the slopes of the Palatino hills, when the Etruscans and Greek colonies occupied areas nearby. Tradition gave Romulus the paternity of the village, tracing in the boundary with a plow.

From 509 B.C. until 27 B.C., the republican supreme authority governed and was elected each year by the citizens, establishing the base of civil law.

Rome, once a village, became the capital of an empire in a few centuries and, with the Punic Wars, the undisputed ruler of the Mediterranean Sea.

The territorial and population expansion called for a redefinition of the "republic", or the state. After the assassination of Caesar (44 B.C.) affluent men disputed over the next successor of the new regime-the princedom: Marco Antonio, Cleopatra's ally, or Caesar's adopted son Octavian, both of who shared the rule after Caesar's death. The "princeps" (from primum caput" or "first citizen") founded an empire in a unified and peaceful order that lasted until the III century A.D. ("pax romana"). It was during these centuries that the Roman empire reached its splendor.

With the III century A.D. Rome gradually lost its central role as a kingdom of vastness and universality, until Diocletian separated the empire into two parts, profoundly restructuring economy, finance, politics, and bureaucracy. This guaranteed Rome a new century of prosperity while Christianity became officially authorized in 313 A.D. by Constantine the Great with the issued edict in Milan, contributing to the support of the regime.

In that period, Rome had about 4 million citizens (free men, slaves excluded) and an empire of over 50 million.

In the IV century the nucleus of the empire began to move toward the orient, after successive invasions by Barbarians, Visigoths, and Vandals, that also came to plunder the city of Rome.

In the VI century, the Roman empire began to disappear, leaving its mark in history as having created and unified the so-called "civil world".

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